Direct Spectroscopic Detection of ATP Turnover Reveals Mechanistic Divergence of ABC Exporters
We have applied high-field (W-band) pulse electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) and electron-electron double resonance (ELDOR)-detected nuclear magnetic resonance (EDNMR) to characterize the coordination sphere of the Mn co-factor in the nucleotide binding sites (NBSs) of ABC transporters. MsbA and BmrCD are two efflux transporters hypothesized to represent divergent catalytic mechanisms. Our results reveal distinct coordination of Mn to ATP and transporter residues in the consensus and degenerate NBSs of BmrCD. In contrast, the coordination of Mn at the two NBSs of MsbA is similar, which provides a mechanistic rationale for its higher rate constant of ATP hydrolysis relative to BmrCD. Direct detection of vanadate ion, trapped in a high-energy post-hydrolysis intermediate, further supports the notion of asymmetric hydrolysis by the two NBSs of BmrCD. The integrated spectroscopic approach presented here, which link energy input to conformational dynamics, can be applied to a variety of systems powered by ATP turnover.