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Neuronal fragile X mental retardation protein activates glial insulin receptor mediated PDF-Tri neuron developmental clearance


AUTHORS

Vita DJ , Meier CJ , Broadie K , . Nature Communications. 2021 2 19; ().

ABSTRACT

Glia engulf and phagocytose neurons during neural circuit developmental remodeling. Disrupting this pruning process contributes to Fragile X syndrome (FXS), a leading cause of intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder in mammals. Utilizing a Drosophila FXS model central brain circuit, we identify two glial classes responsible for Draper-dependent elimination of developmentally transient PDF-Tri neurons. We find that neuronal Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) drives insulin receptor activation in glia, promotes glial Draper engulfment receptor expression, and negatively regulates membrane-molding ESCRT-III Shrub function during PDF-Tri neuron clearance during neurodevelopment in Drosophila. In this context, we demonstrate genetic interactions between FMRP and insulin receptor signaling, FMRP and Draper, and FMRP and Shrub in PDF-Tri neuron elimination. We show that FMRP is required within neurons, not glia, for glial engulfment, indicating FMRP-dependent neuron-to-glia signaling mediates neuronal clearance. We conclude neuronal FMRP drives glial insulin receptor activation to facilitate Draper- and Shrub-dependent neuronal clearance during neurodevelopment in Drosophila.