RIPK3-mediated inflammation is a conserved β cell response to ER stress
- PMID: 33355143[PubMed].
Islet inflammation is an important etiopathology of type 2 diabetes; however, the underlying mechanisms are not well defined. Using complementary experimental models, we discovered RIPK3-dependent IL1B induction in β cells as an instigator of islet inflammation. In cultured β cells, ER stress activated RIPK3, leading to NF-kB-mediated proinflammatory gene expression. In a zebrafish muscle insulin resistance model, overnutrition caused islet inflammation, β cell dysfunction, and loss in an ER stress-, -, and -dependent manner. In mouse islets, high-fat diet triggered the IL1B expression in β cells before macrophage recruitment in vivo, and RIPK3 inhibition suppressed palmitate-induced β cell dysfunction and expression in vitro. Furthermore, in human islets grafted in hyperglycemic mice, a marked increase in ER stress, RIPK3, and NF-kB activation in β cells were accompanied with murine macrophage infiltration. Thus, RIPK3-mediated induction of proinflammatory mediators is a conserved, previously unrecognized β cell response to metabolic stress and a mediator of the ensuing islet inflammation.