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Phosphorylation barcode-dependent signal bias of the dopamine D1 receptor


kaya AIAli I , Perry NANicole A , Gurevich VVVsevolod V , Iverson TMT M . Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2020 6 23; ().


Agonist-activated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) must correctly select from hundreds of potential downstream signaling cascades and effectors. To accomplish this, GPCRs first bind to an intermediary signaling protein, such as G protein or arrestin. These intermediaries initiate signaling cascades that promote the activity of different effectors, including several protein kinases. The relative roles of G proteins versus arrestins in initiating and directing signaling is hotly debated, and it remains unclear how the correct final signaling pathway is chosen given the ready availability of protein partners. Here, we begin to deconvolute the process of signal bias from the dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) by exploring factors that promote the activation of ERK1/2 or Src, the kinases that lead to cell growth and proliferation. We found that ERK1/2 activation involves both arrestin and Gαs, while Src activation depends solely on arrestin. Interestingly, we found that the phosphorylation pattern influences both arrestin and Gαs coupling, suggesting an additional way the cells regulate G protein signaling. The phosphorylation sites in the D1R intracellular loop 3 are particularly important for directing the binding of G protein versus arrestin and for selecting between the activation of ERK1/2 and Src. Collectively, these studies correlate functional outcomes with a physical basis for signaling bias and provide fundamental information on how GPCR signaling is directed.