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Protease-activated receptors differentially regulate human platelet activation through a phosphatidic acid-dependent pathway.


Holinstat MMichael , Voss B Bryan , Bilodeau ML Matthew L , Hamm HE Heidi E . Molecular pharmacology. 2007 3 ; 71(3). 686-94


Pathological conditions such as coronary artery disease are clinically controlled via therapeutic regulation of platelet activity. Thrombin, through protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1 and PAR4, plays a central role in regulation of human platelet function in that it is known to be the most potent activator of human platelets. Currently, direct thrombin inhibitors used to block platelet activation result in unwanted side effects of excessive bleeding. An alternative therapeutic strategy would be to inhibit PAR-mediated intracellular platelet signaling pathways. To elucidate the best target, we are studying differences between the two platelet thrombin receptors, PAR1 and PAR4, in mediating thrombin’s action. In this study, we show that platelet activation by PAR1-activating peptide (PAR1-AP) requires a phospholipase D (PLD)-mediated phosphatidic acid (PA) signaling pathway. We show that this PAR1-specific PA-mediated effect is not regulated through differential granule secretion after PAR-induced platelet activation. Perturbation of this signaling pathway via inhibition of lipid phosphate phosphatase-1 (LPP-1) by propranolol or inhibition of the phosphatidylcholine-derived phosphatidic acid (PA) formation by PLD with a primary alcohol significantly attenuated platelet activation by PAR1-AP. Platelet activation by thrombin or PAR4-AP was insensitive to these inhibitors. Furthermore, these inhibitors significantly attenuated activation of Rap1 after stimulation by PAR1-AP but not thrombin or PAR4-AP. Because PA metabolites such as diacylglycerol play an important role in intracellular signaling, identifying crucial differences in PA regulation of PAR-induced platelet activation may lead to a greater understanding of the role of PAR1 versus PAR4 in progression of thrombosis.