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Proteomic characterization of the human lens and Cataractogenesis


Cantrell LSLee S , Schey KLKevin L . Expert review of proteomics. 2021 4 14; 18(2). 119-135


INTRODUCTION: The goal of this review is to highlight the triumphs and frontiers in measurement of the lens proteome as it relates to onset of age-related nuclear cataract. As global life expectancy increases, so too does the frequency of age-related nuclear cataracts. Molecular therapeutics do not exist for delay or relief of cataract onset in humans. Since lens fiber cells are incapable of protein synthesis after initial maturation, age-related changes in proteome composition and post-translational modification accumulation can be measured with various techniques. Several of these modifications have been associated with cataract onset.

AREAS COVERED: We discuss the impact of long-lived proteins on the lens proteome and lens homeostasis as well as proteomic techniques that may be used to measure proteomes at various levels of proteomic specificity and spatial resolution.

EXPERT OPINION: There is clear evidence that several proteome modifications are correlated with cataract formation. Past studies should be enhanced with cutting-edge, spatially resolved mass spectrometry techniques to enhance the specificity and sensitivity of modification detection as it relates to cataract formation.