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Settable Polymeric Autograft Extenders in a Rabbit Radius Model of Bone Formation


Boller LALauren A , McGough MAPMadison A P , Shiels SMStefanie M , Duvall CLCraig L , Wenke JCJoseph C , Guelcher SAScott A . Materials (Basel, Switzerland). 2021 7 15; 14(14).


Autograft (AG) is the gold standard for bone grafts, but limited quantities and patient morbidity are associated with its use. AG extenders have been proposed to minimize the volume of AG while maintaining the osteoinductive properties of the implant. In this study, poly(ester urethane) (PEUR) and poly(thioketal urethane) (PTKUR) AG extenders were implanted in a 20-mm rabbit radius defect model to evaluate new bone formation and graft remodeling. Outcomes including µCT and histomorphometry were measured at 12 weeks and compared to an AG (no polymer) control. AG control examples exhibited new bone formation, but inconsistent healing was observed. The implanted AG control was resorbed by 12 weeks, while AG extenders maintained implanted AG throughout the study. Bone growth from the defect interfaces was observed in both AG extenders, but residual polymer inhibited cellular infiltration and subsequent bone formation within the center of the implant. PEUR-AG extenders degraded more rapidly than PTKUR-AG extenders. These observations demonstrated that AG extenders supported new bone formation and that polymer composition did not have an effect on overall bone formation. Furthermore, the results indicated that early cellular infiltration is necessary for harnessing the osteoinductive capabilities of AG.