Organotypic Neurovascular Models: Past Results and Future Directions
- PMID: 31699496[PubMed].
The high failure rates of clinical trials in neurodegeneration, perhaps most apparent in recent high-profile failures of potential Alzheimer’s disease therapies, have partially motivated the development of improved human cell-based models to bridge the gap between well-plate assays and preclinical efficacy studies in mice. Recently, cerebral organoids derived from stem cells have gained significant traction as 3D models of central nervous system (CNS) regions. Although this technology is promising, several limitations still exist; most notably, improper structural organization of neural cells and a lack of functional glia and vasculature. Here, we provide an overview of the cerebral organoid field and speculate how engineering strategies, including biomaterial fabrication and templating, might be used to overcome existing challenges.