Organoids as Complex In Vitro Models for Studying Radiation-Induced Cell Recruitment
- PMID: 32952734[PubMed].
Patients with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) typically receive chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation therapy. Although this treatment improves prognosis for most patients, some patients continue to experience recurrence within 5 years. Preclinical studies have shown that immune cell infiltration at the irradiated site may play a significant role in tumor cell recruitment; however, little is known about the mechanisms that govern this process. This lack of knowledge highlights the need to evaluate radiation-induced cell infiltration with models that have controllable variables and maintain biological integrity. Mammary organoids are multicellular three-dimensional (3D) models, and they have been used to examine many aspects of mammary development and tumorigenesis. Organoids are also emerging as a powerful tool to investigate normal tissue radiation damage. In this review, we evaluate recent advances in mammary organoid technology, consider the advantages of using organoids to study radiation response, and discuss future directions for the applications of this technique.