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Microtubules and Gαo-signaling modulate the preferential secretion of young insulin secretory granules in islet β cells via independent pathways


Hu RRuiying , Zhu XXiaodong , Yuan MMingyang , Ho KHKung-Hsien , Kaverina IIrina , Gu GGuoqiang . PloS one. 2021 7 22; 16(7). e0241939


For sustainable function, each pancreatic islet β cell maintains thousands of insulin secretory granules (SGs) at all times. Glucose stimulation induces the secretion of a small portion of these SGs and simultaneously boosts SG biosynthesis to sustain this stock. The failure of these processes, often induced by sustained high-insulin output, results in type 2 diabetes. Intriguingly, young insulin SGs are more likely secreted during glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) for unknown reasons, while older SGs tend to lose releasability and be degraded. Here, we examine the roles of microtubule (MT) and Gαo-signaling in regulating the preferential secretion of young versus old SGs. We show that both MT-destabilization and Gαo inactivation results in more SGs localization near plasma membrane (PM) despite higher levels of GSIS and reduced SG biosynthesis. Intriguingly, MT-destabilization or Gαo-inactivation results in higher secretion probabilities of older SGs, while combining both having additive effects on boosting GSIS. Lastly, Gαo inactivation does not detectably destabilize the β-cell MT network. These findings suggest that Gαo and MT can modulate the preferential release of younger insulin SGs via largely parallel pathways.