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Effect of Intramedullary Nailing Patterns on Interfragmentary Strain in a Mouse Femur Fracture: A Parametric Finite Element Analysis


Lowen GBGregory B , Garrett KAKatherine A , Moore-Lotridge SNStephanie N , Uppuganti SSasidhar , Guelcher SAScott A , Schoenecker JGJonathan G , Nyman JSJeffry S . Journal of biomechanical engineering. 2022 1 7; 144(5).


Delayed long bone fracture healing and nonunion continue to be a significant socioeconomic burden. While mechanical stimulation is known to be an important determinant of the bone repair process, understanding how the magnitude, mode, and commencement of interfragmentary strain (IFS) affect fracture healing can guide new therapeutic strategies to prevent delayed healing or nonunion. Mouse models provide a means to investigate the molecular and cellular aspects of fracture repair, yet there is only one commercially available, clinically-relevant, locking intramedullary nail (IMN) currently available for studying long bone fractures in rodents. Having access to alternative IMNs would allow a variety of mechanical environments at the fracture site to be evaluated, and the purpose of this proof-of-concept finite element analysis study is to identify which IMN design parameters have the largest impact on IFS in a murine transverse femoral osteotomy model. Using the dimensions of the clinically relevant IMN as a guide, the nail material, distance between interlocking screws, and clearance between the nail and endosteal surface were varied between simulations. Of these parameters, changing the nail material from stainless steel (SS) to polyetheretherketone (PEEK) had the largest impact on IFS. Reducing the distance between the proximal and distal interlocking screws substantially affected IFS only when nail modulus was low. Therefore, IMNs with low modulus (e.g., PEEK) can be used alongside commercially available SS nails to investigate the effect of initial IFS or stability on fracture healing with respect to different biological conditions of repair in rodents.