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-Based Direct-Fed Microbial Reduces the Pathogenic Synergy of a Coinfection with Salmonella enterica Serovar Choleraesuis and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus


Zuckermann FAFederico A , Husmann RRobert , Chen WWeiYu , Roady PPatrick , Pfeiff JJanice , Leistikow KRKyle R , Duersteler MMegan , Son SSona , King MRMichael R , Augspurger NRNathan R . Infection and immunity. 2022 3 7; 90(4). e0057421


Viral respiratory infections predispose lungs to bacterial coinfections causing a worse outcome than either infection alone. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes pneumonia in pigs and is often associated with bacterial coinfections. We examined the impact of providing weanling pigs a -based direct-fed microbial (DFM) on the syndrome resulting from infection with either Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis alone, or in combination with PRRSV. Nine days after the bacterial challenge, Salmonella was isolated from ileocecal lymph nodes of all challenged pigs regardless of DFM treatment. Compared to the single bacterial challenge, the dual challenge with Salmonella and PRRSV resulted in a pathogenic synergy exhibited by a higher rate of Salmonella colonization in the lung and a more extensive and severe interstitial pneumonia. Provision of DFM to dually challenged pigs reduced the rate of lung colonization by Salmonella, eliminated or reduced the presence of PRRSV in the lung, and reduced the extent and severity of gross lung pathology. Dually challenged pigs that received DFM had increased concentrations of interleukin 1 (IL-1) and IL-8 in lung lavage fluids, accompanied by increased expression in their blood cells of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain receptor 2 (NOD2) and triggering receptor expressed in myeloid cells 1 (TREM-1) molecules. These changes in pulmonary inflammatory cytokine production and increased expression of NOD2 and TREM-1 suggest that the DFM exerted a systemic modulating effect on innate immunity. These observations are consistent with the notion that tonic stimulation by gut-derived microbial products can poise innate immunity to fight infections in the respiratory tract.